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(1) General performance

The appearance of PA is transparent or opaque milky white or light yellow pellets, which are customarily called slices. The appearance is horny and hard, and the surface of the product is shiny. The water absorption rate of PA is relatively large, the greater the proportion of amide bonds (the smaller the number of methylene groups), the higher the water absorption rate, specifically: PA46>PA6>PA66>PA610>PA1010>PA11>PA12>PA1212.

PA is a slow-burning plastic. It smells like burnt wool or nails when it burns. To achieve V-0 flame retardancy, it needs to be modified by adding flame retardants.

PA is a medium-barrier plastic, and it enhances with the increase of the ratio of amide/methylene, and PA6 has the best barrier effect.

 

(2) Mechanical properties

The tensile strength and impact strength of PA at room temperature are high, but the impact strength is not as high as that of PC or POM; as the temperature and humidity increase, the tensile strength decreases sharply, while the impact strength increases significantly. The strength of glass fiber reinforced PA is less affected by temperature and humidity.

The fatigue resistance of PA is good, only not as good as POM, and it can be improved by about 50% after glass fiber reinforced treatment.

The creep resistance of PA is poor, and it is not suitable for the manufacture of precision stressed products, but it can be improved after glass fiber reinforcement.

PA has excellent friction resistance and wear resistance, and is a commonly used wear-resistant plastic. The friction coefficient of different varieties is not much different, and the friction coefficient of oil-free lubrication is only 0.1~0.3; PA1010 is with the best wear resistance. Adding wear-resistant materials such as molybdenum disulfide, graphite, and F4 into PA can further improve friction and wear resistance.

 

(3) Thermal properties

The heat deflection temperature of PA is not high, generally at 50~75℃. If reinforced with glass fiber, it can be increased by more than 4 times, and the heat deflection temperature is as high as 200℃ or more. The thermal conductivity of PA is very small, only 0.16~0.4W/(m·k). The linear expansion coefficient of PA is big, but it decreases with the increase of crystallinity. The coefficient of linear expansion of low crystallinity PA610 is as high as 13X10-5 K-1, and that of PA11 is as high as 12.5X10-5K-1

 

(4) Electrical properties

PA is an excellent insulating material under low temperature and low humidity conditions, but the insulation performance deteriorates sharply with the increase of temperature and humidity; and the molecule with a large proportion of amido groups is the most sensitive, such as PA6 is the most sensitive and PA12 the smallest.

 

(5) Environmental performance

PA has excellent chemical resistance and stability, and can resist most organic solvents such as alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters and ketones, especially on oil resistance. However, the acid, alkali and salt resistance of PA are not good, which can cause swelling. The most harmful inorganic salt is zinc chloride; PA is soluble in formic acid and phenolic compounds.

PA has poor lightfastness. It rapidly loses strength and becomes brittle in sunlight; therefore, it cannot be used outdoors without modification.

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